Material Culture: the physical objects that people create and use
Non-Material Culture: abstract human creations
- Political System
Cultural Universals: Element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide
- All cultures have GOOD and BAD people, don’t make assumptions based on religion
- Belief in the supernatural
- Currency (Turkish Lira)
Technology: is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.
Symbols: a thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract.
- Animal: Grey Wolf
- Flower: Tul
- Bird: Redwing
- Coat of Arms: The emblem of Turkey contains the crescent and star symbols of Islam in red, and is an adaptation of the national flag.
Group: defined as a number of people who identify and interact with each other
- For example, when three people just casually hang out and talk with each other
Language: the method of human communication
- Minority Languages: Kurmanji, Zazaki, Arabic, Laz, Georgian
Values: shared beliefs of what is good, bad, or wrong
- Circumcision for boy(s) at a young age
- Feast of Sacrifice- a four day national holiday held during the lunar month
Norms: Shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in certain situation
- When invited somewhere, DON’T LEAVE EARLY. They take it as a sign that they failed in being your host.
- Sharing is caring
- Oldest first
- Bring a gift
- Don’t understand personal space
- Don’t put your feet up while sitting, and don’t let them see the bottom of your feet
- Chewing gum while talking to someone is VERY rude.
Laws: Written rules enforced by the government
- Stealing olives before they are ripe can result in a jail sentence up to 2 years
- It is illegal for a man over 80 to become a pilot
- It is against the law to fall in love with a neighbor’s daughter, son, wife/husband, servant, or animal
Folkways: describes socially acceptable behavior
- Shake hands with everyone, elders first
- Do not stand with your hands on your hips while talking to someone
- The “OK” sign in Turkey means that someone is a homosexual
- If you invite someone to dine, you pay the entire bill
Primary Group: friends and family structure
- Family always comes first, and in second- friends.
Secondary Group: large groups whose relationships are impersonal and goal-oriented
- This type of group would be displayed in a work environment
Informal Group: not formed in any response to any organizational requirements
- So around friends, you don’t always have to follow the rules
Formal Group: formal organization controlled by outer parties
- For example, the government, and how they handle themselves within the court.